FLOOD DISASTER, LOCAL BELIEF AND ISLAM-SUFISM

Harifuddin Harifuddin, Rasyidah Zainuddin

Abstract


Flood disaster as a natural phenomenon has a lot of meaning for the rural community. They believe that flood is the power of deity, as a sign that a quarrel is happening ‘under water’, and a sign of God’s kindness because flood has negative and positive aspects. These show that people’s thoughts are shaped by several factors, such as local and religious beliefs (Sufism). This paper outlines how Segeri society describes the meaning of flood disaster constructed by local beliefs and Islamic sufism. Historically, the spread of Islam in South Sulawesi – that is generally characterized as ‘Sufi’ – is the factor influencing the religious belief of local society. The aforementioned belief is the sufism characteristic which is about the absolute resignation toward God’s will and fate. This study uses phenomenological approach to interpret the understanding of flood and the local belief obtained through in-depth interview to Bissu and farmers. The interview data is also linked to the observation of the natural environment. The research shows that Segeri society believes that flood is God’s will and reprisal. By being given an ordeal, someone’s sins will be decreased. Flood – they believe – will give positive impacts and also bring God’s blessing in their lives. This belief causes the so-called ‘resignation’ everytime flood destroys their area.


Bagi masyarakat pedesaan, bencana banjir adalah fenomena alam yang memiliki banyak makna. Beberapa di antaranya yaitu banjir sebagai perwujudan kekuasaan dewa, sebagai pertanda sedang terjadi pertikaian di alam bawah air, dan merupakan tanda kebaikan Tuhan karena banjir memiliki aspek negatif dan positif. Contoh-contoh tersebut menunjukkan pemaknaan masyarakat yang dibentuk oleh beberapa faktor, antara lain kepercayaan lokal dan keyakinan keagamaan (sufisme). Tulisan ini menguraikan pemaknaan masyarakat Segeri terhadap terjadinya bencana banjir yang dikonstruksi kepercayaan lokal dan Islam sufisme. Secara historis, penyebaran agama Islam di provinsi Sulawesi Selatan yang umumnya berciri ‘sufistik’ merupakan salah satu faktor yang membentuk keyakinan keagamaan masyarakat setempat. Keyakinan keagamaan yang dimaksud adalah adanya karakteristik sufisme yang berisi ‘kepasrahan’ mutlak atas kehendak dan takdir Tuhan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan fenomenologi dengan menafsirkan pemahaman masyarakat Segeri terhadap banjir, kepercayaan lokal mereka yang diperoleh melalui wawancara mendalam dengan bissu dan petani. Data wawancara tersebut juga dihubungkan dengan pengamatan terhadap lingkungan alam setempat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa masyarakat Segeri meyakini banjir sebagai cobaan dan kehendak dari Tuhan. Setiap cobaan yang dialami manusia berarti menggugurkan dosa-dosanya. Banjir yang datang dianggap memiliki hikmah kebaikan dan keberkahan Tuhan dalam kehidupan mereka. Keyakinan tersebut berkonsekuensi terhadap ‘kepasrahan’ masyarakat setiap banjir terjadi


Keywords


flood disaster; local belief; Islam-sufism; social construction

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akhmar, A. M, & Syarifuddin. 2007. The Revealing of Local Wisdom of South Sulawesi. Makassar: Centre for Environmental Management of Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua at Ministery of Environmental Republic of Indonesia.

Bakornas. 2012. Disaster Characteristics in Indonesia. Jakarta: Badan Koordinasi Penanggulangan Bencana.

Bahri, S. 2014. “A’pa Alliri”: The Social Function of Local Institution at Matajang Society. International Journal of Academic Research 6(6). DOI: dx.doi.org/10.7813/2075-4124.2014/6-6/B.18.

Barsh, R. L. 2000. Taking Indigenous Science Seriously, in Biodiversity in Canada: Ecology, Ideas, and Action, ed. S. A. Bocking, Broadview Press, Toronto, ON. (pp. 152-173).

Berger, P. L., & Thomas Luckmann, 1990. Tafsir Sosial atas Kenyataan: Risalah tentang Sosiologi Pengetahuan. (Terj. Hasan Basari). Jakarta: LP3ES.

Basso, K. 1996. Wisdom sits in Places. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Cisin, I. H., & Clark, W. B. 1962. The Methodological Challenge of Disaster Research. In G. Baker & D. Chapman (Eds.), Man and Society in Disaster. New York: Basic Books.

Deloria, V. 1992. The Spatial Problem of History, in God is Red. Golden: North American Press.

Drabek, T. E. 1986. Human system responses to disaster: An inventory of sociological findings. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Fatahillah, A. 2012. Interview. Segeri Pangkep, December 13th and 19th.

Hamid, A. 1994. Syekh Yusuf: A Priest, Sufi, and Fighter. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia Publishing.

Mahmud. 1976. Silasa: Setetes Embun di Tanah Gersang. Ujung Pandang: YKSST.

Manda, D. 2007. “Karampuang” Indigenous Community in Sinjai District: An Analysis of Religious Antrophology. Dissertation. Makassar: Postgraduate School of Hasanuddin University.

Mujahiduddin. 2004. ‘Calabai’ in Bissu Community Perspective at Pangkep District South Sulawesi Province (A Phenomenology Perspective of Edmund Husserl), Thesis: Philosophical Faculty of Gadjah Mada University.

Pierotti, R., & D. Wildcat. 2010. Traditional Ecological Knowledge: The Third Alternative. Ecological Applications. 10(5), 1333-1340.

Riyanto, G. 2009. Peter Berger: The Metatheory Mind Perspective. Jakarta: LP3ES.

Smith, D. 2005. Through a glass darkly. In R.W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli (Eds.) What is a disaster: New answers to old questions. Philadelphia: Xlibris.

Turner, Bryan S. 1991. Islamic Sosiology: a Critical Analysis of Weber’s Sociological. Thesis. Jakarta: CV. Rajawali.

Wahab, Abdul. 2014. Inequality life of urban fisher. International Journal of Academic Research 6 (4), 118-122. DOI: dx.doi.org/10.7813/2075-4124.2014/6-4/B.19.

Warren, D. M., L .J. Slikkerveer and D. Brokensha (eds). 1995. The Cultural Dimensions of Development: Indigenous Knowledge Systems. London: IntermediateTechnology Publications.

Weber, Max. 1985. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Sydney: Unwin Paperbacks.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18860/el.v19i1.3916

Editorial Office:
Humas, Dokumentasi dan Publikasi (INFOPUB)
Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
Gedung Rectorate 4th floor
Jalan Gajayana No.50, Malang, Indonesia 65144
This work is licensed under a CC-BY-NC-SA.
el-Harakah, ISSN : 1858-4357 | e-ISSN : 2356-1734
Phone : +6282333435641
Fax : (0341) 572533
Email : elharakah@uin-malang.ac.id
elharakahjurnal@gmail.com
Website : http://ejournal.uin-malang.ac.id/index.php/infopub
Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang