CRYPTOCURRENCY AND DIGITAL MONEY IN ISLAMIC LAW: Is it Legal?

Husnul Fatarib, Meirison Alizar Sali

Abstract


Cryptocurrency is a digital currency spread in peer-to-peer network all over the world. This network has a big accounting book called Blockchain which can be accessed by public. This article is doctrinal legal research with conceptual research. This article reviews digital money based on Jalbu Masalah wa Dar al-Mafasid accompanied by the implication of Saddu az-Zari’ah. The results show that Islamic law acknowledges the currency issued by the government. The existence of a country is a form of protection to the money owners from the acts of fraud in finance. Bitcoin and digital money are not included in the criteria mentioned in Islamic economy law because of it contains obscurity (jahalah), high speculation element, and can harm individual as well as the country. Bitcoin has no clear source, authentic balance, and it only has moral assurance.

Mata uang kripto adalah mata uang digital yang tersebar dalam jaringan peer-to-peer di seluruh dunia. Jaringan ini memiliki sebuah buku akuntansi besar bernama Blockchain yang dapat diakses oleh publik. Artikel ini merupakan penelitian hukum doctrinal dengan pendekatan konseptual. Artikel ini melakukan kajian terhadap uang digital berdasarkan Jalbu Masalah wa Dar al-Mafasid sertai implikasi Saddu az-Zari’ah. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hukum Islam mengakui keberadaan mata uang yang dicetak oleh pemerintah. Keberadaan negara merupakan wujud perlindungan kepada pemilik uang dari tindakan penipuan dan kecurangan dalam bidang finansial. Bitcoin dan uang digital tidak termasuk dalam kriteria yang disebutkan dalam hukum ekonomi Islam. Karena mengandung ketidakjelasan (jahalah), unsur spekulasi yang tinggi serta dapat merugikan individu dan negara. Bitcoin ini tidak mempunyai sumber yang jelas, saldo yang hakiki, dan hanya ada jaminan secara moril.


Keywords


cryptocurrency; currency; Islamic economy law;

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18860/j.v11i2.8687

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