POLITIK IDENTITAS MASYARAKAT TENGGER DALAM MEMPERTAHANKAN SISTEM KEBUDAYAAN DARI HEGEMONI ISLAM DAN KEKUASAAN

Ali Maksum

Abstract


This article explores the dynamic of Tengger communities life in order to defend its culture with regard to the expansion of Islam and the power of Indonesian government. The research were conducted in two villages, Ngadisari and Sapikerep, Probolinggo. Using the perspective of representation theory, this study  elaborate more detail about the strategy of the Tengger people in representing their identity in the midst of the dynamics of the changing time. The dynamics dialectic between the Tengger and power (Islam) have brought out two important propositions. First, because of the strong tradition and culture Tengger systems, both Hindu and Islamic ideology interpreted as a cultural system that only symbolically attached to the Tengger. Second, although impressed syncretic, in fact, Islam and Hinduism also established world view Tengger substantive and culturally. The second view is as commonly as Islam in Java, "Javanese Islam" behind its character as if syncretic. However, it shows "substantial Islam" because it is based on religious traditions of Sufism.

 

Artikel ini mengeksplorasi dinamika masyarakat Tengger dalam mempertahankan sistem kebudayaan dari ekspansi Islam dan kekuasaan pemerintah Indonesia. Penelitian dengan mengambil lokus di dua desa, Ngadisari dan Sapikerep, Probolinggo. Dengan menggunakan perspektif teori representasi, penelitian ini hendak mengelaborasi strategi masyarakat Tengger dalam merepresentasi identitas diri mereka di tengah-tengah dinamika perubahan zaman. Dinamika dialektika antara Tengger dengan kekuasaan (Islam) melahirkan dua proposisi penting. Pertama, karena kuatnya tradisi dan sistem kebudayaan masyarakat Tengger, baik ideologi Hindu maupun Islam, dimaknai sebagai sistem kebudayaan yang tidak ubahnya hanya melekat secara simbolik bagi masyarakat Tengger. Kedua, meskipun terkesan sinkretis, sesungguhnya Islam maupun Hindu juga membentuk world view masyarakat Tengger secara subtantif dan kultural. Pandangan kedua tidak ubahnya seperti sistem keagamaan masyarakat Jawa pada umumnya yang menganut agama Islam. ”Islam Jawa” di balik wataknya seolah-olah sinkretis, namun sesungguhnya tetap menunjukkan ”Islam subtansial” karena berbasis tradisi keagamaan tasawuf


Keywords


identity; cultural system; Islam, power

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18860/el.v17i1.3083

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