Exploring the Architecture and Its Influence of Badshahi Mosque Lahore (Bmlh): A Unesco Tentative Heritage Site

Saddam Hussain, Fu Juan


Asia has a variety of diverse ancient cultures and civilizations. In this paper, we studied the architecture of a UNESCO tentative heritage site: Badshahi Mosque Lahore (BMLH, 1671–1673), built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir (AA). The site is special since it had the largest mosque title (human capacity = 100,000) in the world from 1673 to 1986, has great architectural importance, and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the world. Various mosque architectures (MA) emerged over the past 1400 years worldwide to preserve each region's diversity, identity, and culture. A documentation visit was arranged to study this site and feel the real architecture of the Mughals after decades of preserved form. The study found that BMLH underwent significant alterations while keeping the original MA. This unique study further focused on the basic architecture of the Mughal Era. A detailed study of the architectural themes of BMLH showed that the architectural style of this heritage included regional, cultural, and traditional impacts. By analyzing the architectural themes and distinctive features of BMLH, we have uncovered the distinct regional, religious, and psychological influences that led to Mughal-era mosque architecture's development. Further documentation was reported about the current structural situation of Badshahi Mosque; the number of seepages has been pointed out, and several decays were sighted during our visit. For this significant site's perfect preservation, it was proposed that high-end preservation strategies be implemented in the future.


UNESCO tentative heritage site; Badshahi mosque; Mosque architecture; Regional architecture; Mughal architecture

Full Text:



J. S. Coley, D. Das, and G. J. Adler Jr, "Creating Sacred Spaces: Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, and Muslim Student Groups at US Colleges and Universities", Sociology of Education, vol 95, no. 3, pp. 171-188, 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00380407221084695.

A. A. Khoso, N. Akhter, "English 6 The Need For Ethical Techniques In The Development Of Islamic Society And Educational Institutes:(A Research Study)". The International Research Journal of Usooluddin, vol 5, no. 1, pp. 49-60, 2021.

J. Qadir, A. Zaman, "Sustainable development viewed from the lens of Islam", International Journal of Pluralism and Economics Education, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 46-60, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPEE.2019.098181.

M. Brand, "Orthodoxy, innovation, and revival: Considerations of the past in Imperial Mughal tomb architecture", Muqarnas, vol 10, pp. 323-334, 1993. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1523197.

B. Awwad, "The development of the Islamic Heritage in Southeast Asia tradition and future Case study-Mosque Architecture in Malaysia Classification of Styles and Possible Influences", Int. J. Eng. Res. Dev, vol. 13, pp. 63-73, 2017.

S. B. Agha, M. Khubaib, "The three Mosques of Pakistan as an Islamic Heritage Architecture", Al-Azhār, vol 6, no. 1, 2020.

M. H. Mahboob, et al., "Tourist's Attitude Toward Cultural Heritage And Halal Products: A Case Study Of Lahore", Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications, and Conflict, vol 24, no. 2, pp. 1-8, 2020.

M. Khazaee, et al., "Mughal or Moorish architecture: The origins of Malaysian mosques during colonial periods", Soc. Sci. Humanit, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 639-654, 2015.

K. Maryam, Influence of Timurid architecture on Safavid and Mughal mosques in India/Maryam Khazaee, University of Malaya, 2015

S. Labadi, "UNESCO, world heritage, and sustainable development: International discourses and local impacts", in Collision or collaboration, Springer, pp. 45-60, 2017.

A. Nasrolahi, et al. "Participatory Monitoring in Cultural Heritage Conservation: Case Study: The Landscape Zone of the Bisotun World Heritage Site", in Adjunct Proceedings of the 29th ACM Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation, and Personalization. 2021.

N. A. Khan, et al., "Critical Review of Pakistani Current Legislation on Sustainable Protection of Cultural Heritage", Sustainability, vol. 14, no. 6, p. 3633, 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063633.

P. B. Larsen, W. Logan, "World Heritage, and Sustainable Development", New Directions in World Heritage Management; Routledge: London, UK, 2018.

M. Tarrad, M. Matrouk, "The dome in Islamic architecture and the contemporary orientations to the design of Mosques' domes", In Proceedings of the International Congress: Domes In The World, Florence, Italy. 2012.

U. M. BUKSH, U. M. MALIK, "A Comparative Study of Domes of Contemporary Jami' Mosques and Mughul Historical Mosques of Lahore", Quarterly Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, vol. 68, no. 2, 2020.

M. H. Mahboob, M. Ashfaq, Tourist's Attitude Towards Cultural Heritage and Their Willingness to Pay for Visitation: A Case Study of Lahore-Pakistan. Preprints, 2020.

F. Zahra, S.B. Shahir, "Spiritual Aesthetics of Islamic Ornamentation and the Aesthetic Value in Islamic Architecture", Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, vol. 12, no.1, pp. 164-175, 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32350/jitc.121.08

N. M. Nawawi, P.S. Jahn Kassim, S. Hamat, "A historiography of the mosque: reconciling a renaissance of spirituality in the material forms of Islamic architecture", Advanced Science Letters, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 2164-2169, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2016.7558

A. S. Ahmed, "The spiritual search of art over Islamic architecture with non-figurative representations", Journal of Islamic Architecture, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-13, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18860/jia.v3i1.2538

M. A. Bilal, A. Parvez, "Kashi-kari at the Mosque Wazir Khan Lahore", Majallah e Tahqiq, vol. 38, no. 109, pp. 3-14, 2017

Y. Tabbaa, "Reviewed Work: Islamic architecture: Form, function, and meaning", Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 180-182, 1997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/605648

J. M. Nejad, E. Zarghami, A.S.H. Abad, "A study on the concepts and themes of color and light in exquisite Islamic architecture", Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1077-1096, 2016. DOI: 10.4314/jfas.v8i3.23.

F. Jamil, S. GULZAR, "Historical Development Of Dado Ornamentation In Mughal Architecture", Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Heritage Architecture XV, vol 171, p. 97, 2017.

F. Zahraa, S. Abdullah, "Vehicular Art Themes: Five Indian Subcontinental Art Forms that Inspire Pakistani Truck Visuals", International Journal of Innovation, Creativity, and Change, vol 14, no. 1, pp. 1243-1267, 2020

A. Kumari, "Elucidation of the relationship between clothing silhouette and motifs with Indian Mughal architecture", Fashion and Textiles, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-23, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40691-019-0174-4

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18860/jia.v7i3.20999


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Islamic Architecture

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Department of Architecture, Faculty of Science and Technology
Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
Jalan Gajayana 50 Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia 65144
Phone (+62) 341 558933,Facsimile (+62) 341 558933
e-mail: journal.islamicarchitecture@gmail.com / jia@uin-malang.ac.id


 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.