Saddam Hussain, Zheng Chunrou, Fu Juan


This study investigates the primary spaces and required orientation of mosques. Similar to other architectural styles, mosques have specific primary spaces that must be featured in every typical mosque, while each region's cultural and traditional needs determine secondary spaces. Orienting the mosque toward the Qibla direction is also crucial. The study sheds light on the correct orientation of typical mosques and the origin of Islamic directives regarding their orientation. Several common ancient mathematical procedures for calculating Qibla have been described. In addition to architectural plans for five mosques in Pakistan, artistic depictions of aerial views of existing mosques in other parts of the globe are also included.


Mosque architecture; Spaces of mosque; Orientation of mosque; Qibla direction

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