Somayeh Karim, Parnaz Goodarzparvari, Mohammad Aref, Pardis Bahmani


Islamic art is an introverted art derived from mystical thought and believes expressed in artistic activities and is pure, indigenous, and commensurate with the spirit and social status of its time; Islamic architecture also has an Islamic foundation, and it has a close relationship with the decorative arts. In this regard, mosques are considered the most significant Islamic architecture achievements; in most cases, geometrical shapes and motifs with religious and natural themes have been used. Therefore, the present study's primary purpose is to study the geometric patterns of the Ateeq Mosque (Shiraz) and the Cordoba Mosque (Cordoba) by a descriptive-analytical method. Analyzing the collected data revealed that the motifs and their role in both the Ateeq Mosque of Shiraz and Cordoba are similar. Among the essential motifs observed in these two mosques can be the circle (symbol of being and the symbol of heaven and God), Shams (symbol of the sun and celestial light), the triangle with the downward vertex, the symbol of the female principle and the upward symbol of the mountain symbol and the masculine principle and crucifix (symbol of rotation of the seasons and permanent reproduction) and spiral as the symbol of fertility. In the Islamic period, these motifs are decorated with architectural spaces. The geometric motifs represent natural elements. As appreciation and sanctification of natural elements have been noticed, geometric motifs symbolically evoke those sacred elements and were illustrated in Iran and Spain's arts.


Geometric motifs; Islamic architecture; Geometry; Ateeq Mosque (Shiraz); Cordoba Mosque

Full Text:



Y. Gruter, Aesthetic in Architecture. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University, 1996.

R. A. Maleki, “Forms and Symbolic Roles in Iranian Mosques,” A Publication Dedicated to the Immortal Legacy, vol. 6, no. 22, pp. 110–116, 1998.

J. F. Bonner, “No TitleThe Historical Significance of the Geometric Designs in the Northeast Dome Chamber of the Friday Mosque at Isfahan,” Nexus Network Journal, vol. 18, pp. 55–103, 2016.

M. R. Ismoail, “A Parametric Investigation of the Acoustical Performance of Contemporary Mosques,” Frontiers of Architectural Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 30–41, 2013.

M. Masoud and H. R. B. Shahraki, Infill Buildings in the Historical Context, the Principles of Design, and Evaluation Criteria. Tehran: Azarakhsh Publication, 2012.

S. Blair and J. Bloom, Islamic Mongols: From the Mongol Invasions to the Ilkhanids, in Islamic Art and Architecture. Ullmann Press, 2007.

C. Kerenyi, Dionyos: Archetypal Image of Indestructible Life. New Jersey: Princeton University press, 1976.

G. Çizgen, “Rethinking The Role of Context and Contextualism in Architecture and Design,” Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU), 2012.

B. . Brolin, Field-Oriented Architecture. Esfahan: Khakh Publication, 2004.

B. Ghadiri, New Structures in Historical Contexts. Tehran: Cultural Research Office, 2006.

M. K. ‘Alī, The Past of al-Andalus and Its Present. Egypt: Al-Maktaba al-Ahliyya, 1923.

M. Yousefi Kiani, History of Art and Architecture in the Islamic Period. Tehran, 1995.

Y. Abdullahi and M. R. BinEmbi, “Evolution of Islamic Geometric Patterns,” Frontiers of Architectural Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 243–251, 2013.

M. Makinejad, History of Iranian Art in the Islamic Architectural Decorations. Tehran: Center for Research and Human Development, 2008.

L. A. Janet, “The Islamic City-Historic Myth, Islamic Essence, and Contemporary Relevance,” International Journal Middle East Stud, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 155–176, 1987.

Y. Bani-Yassen, “The Image of al-Andalus in Oriental Geography During the Centuries,” hijrī four first Al-Majala al-’Arabīya li-l-’Ulūm al-Insānīya, vol. 34, no. 134, pp. 11–40, 2016.

J. Hall, Dictionary of Graphical Symbols in the East and the West. Tehran: Contemporary Culture, 2001.

M. Khazaei, One Thousand Nagsh. Tehran: Islamic art studies publication, 2002.

G. Memarian, Iranian Architecture. Tehran: Knowledge Soroush Publications, 2008.

M. Nagizadeh, “The Basis of Religious Art in Islamic Culture,” Cazi University, 2005.

R. E. K. I. Mahina and S. A. Selcuk, “Evolution of Geometric Patterns in Islamic World and A Case on The Jalis of The Naulakha Pavilion in The Lahore Fort,” Journal of Science Part B: Art Humanities Design and Planning, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 83–97, 2018.

M. A. Hanifi and A. Maleki, “Comparative Analysis Of The Decorated Arraies With Geometric And Plant Motifs In Architecture Of The Grand Mosque Of Yazd And Their Developments,” The Turkish Online Journal of Design Art and Communication, vol. 6, no. 196–216, 2016.

N. Ismail and F. N. Hamdan, “Islamic Geometric Pattern Design Of State Mosque In Malaysia,” in 8th UPI-UPSI International Conference 2018 (UPI-UPSI 2018), 2019, pp. 74–75.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18860/jia.v6i2.10113


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Islamic Architecture

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Department of Architecture, Faculty of Science and Technology
Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
Jalan Gajayana 50 Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia 65144
Phone (+62) 341 558933,Facsimile (+62) 341 558933
e-mail: journal.islamicarchitecture@gmail.com / jia@uin-malang.ac.id


 Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.