A DIRECTIVE SPEECH ACT OF HATE SPEECH ON INDONESIAN SOCIAL MEDIA

Ubaidillah Ubaidillah, I Dewa Putu Wijana

Abstract


Hate speech is not only about shared knowledge but also desires and hatred. The purpose of hate speeches is to give the addressee the knowledge unknown before and make them want something never thought of and feel something. This paper describes the type of illocutionary force of hate speech on social media in Indonesia. The utterances used as data have been stipulated by the Indonesian court violating Article 28 and 45a Information and Electronic Transactions Law or article 156a Criminal Code. This article found that the illocutionary forces of hate speeches on Indonesian social media are to express incitement, invitation, order, prohibition, criticism, and warning. The illocutionary functions of these acts are at (1) addressee's compliance upon the will of the speaker; (2) dismantlement of the identity that is the source of the speaker's hatred; or (3) elimination of hatred targets.


Keywords


hate speech, directive speech act, pragmatics, information, electronic transactions law

Full Text:

PDF

References


Austin, J.L. (1968). How to Do Things with Words. New York: Oxford University Press.

Blum-Kulka, S (1987). Indirectness and Politeness in Request: Same or Different?. Journal of Pragmatics, 11,131-146.

Burhani, A. N. (2019). Menemani Minoritas: Paradigma Islam tentang Keberpihakan dan Pembelaan kepada yang Lemah. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Butler, J. (1997). Excitable Speech: A Politic of the Performative. New York: Routledge.

Butler, J. (2010). Performative Agency. Journal of Cultural Economy, DOI: 10.1080/17530350.2010.494117.

Cummings, L. (2007). Pragmatik: Sebuah Perspektif Multidisipliner. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Ghanea, N. (2012). Hate Speech Beyond Border. TEDx EastEnd. https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=mS-bVsHqCzU.

Halliday, M.A.K. & Hasan, R. (1994). Bahasa, Konteks, dan Teks: Aspek-aspek Bahasa dalam Pandangan Semiotik Sosial. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Kepala Kepolisian Republik Indonesia. (2015). Surat Edaran Kapolri No. SE/6/X/201 mengenai penanganan ujaran kebencian.

Kimotho, S. G. & Nyaga, R. N.. (2016). Digitized Ethnic Hate Speech: Understanding Effects of Digital Media Hate Speech on Citizen Journalism in Kenya. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 7(3), 189-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.7n.3p.189 .

Langton, R. (1993). Speech Acts and Unspeakable Acts. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 22 (4), 293-330

Langton, R. (2012). Beyond Belief: Pragmatics in Hate Speech and Pornography. Speech and Harm: Controversies Over Free Speech, 72-93.

Langton, R. (2018). The Authority of Hate Speech. https://www.abc.net.au/religion/the-authority-of-hate-speech/10478626

Leech, G. (1993). Prinsip-prinsip Pragmatik. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia.

Lestari, D. P. (2016). Ungkapan Kebencian Yang Muncul Pada Fenomena Islamophobia di United Kingdom. Thesis. Universitas Gadjah Mada.

Miller, S. (2000). Speech Acts and Conventions. Language Sciences, 22,155-166.

Moon, R. (2018). Putting Faith in Hate: When Religion is The Source or Target of Hate. Cambridge University Press.

Presiden Republik Indonesia. (2015). Undang-Undang No. 19 Tahun 2016 tentang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik.

Putusan Pengadilan Negeri Jakarta Selatan Nomor: 572/Pid.B/2016/PN.Jkt.Sel. (2016). https://putusan.mahkamahagung.go.id/putusan/downloadpdf/76093430f39fc831bd94eb6050292568/pdf&sa=U&ved=0ahUKEwis4p-M8KDaAhVPNrwKHTd8DGsQFggEMAA&client=internal-uds-cse&cx=004086544163985272441:foabjjpxdue&usg=AOvVaw3l0rmnCvvfXDzVu8K9zFxl.

Putusan Pengadilan Negeri Klaten Nomor: 164/Pid.Sus/2017/PN.Kln. (2017). https://putusan.mahkamahagung.go.id/putusan/d9511c5b6ffe447ceaacd5dbd4fa0cae.

Putusan Pengadilan Negeri Rantauprapat Nomor: 169/Pid.Sus/2017/PN. Rap. (2017). https://putusan.mahkamahagung.go.id/putusan/db75546d6ebd353cadd4465e738b97f4.

Putusan Pengadilan Negeri Singkel Nomor: 13/Pid.Sus/2017/PN SKL. (2017). https://putusan.mahkamahagung.go.id/putusan/59e58b6f04df207ef24bcbf374eec51a.

Putusan Pengadilan Negeri Jakarta Utara Nomor: 1105/Pid.Sus/2017/PN.Jkt.Utr. (2017). https://putusan.mahkamahagung.go.id/putusan/13ff533422ecaa46a130ab1816ee54b1.

Rustono. (1999). Pokok-pokok Pragmatik. Semarang: IKIP Semarang Press.

Searle, J. R. (1968). Austin on Locutionary and Illocutionary Acts. The Philosophical Review, 77(4), 405-424.

Searle, J. R. (1969). Speech Acts: A Essays The Philosophy of Language. Cambrigde University Press.

Searle, J. R. (1979). Expression and Meaning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sternberg, R. J. & Sternberg, K. (2008). The Nature of Hate. Cambridge University Press.

Ubaidillah. (2019a). Resignification: Wacana Balik Orang Papua Menanggapi Rasisme. Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya,21(3)

Ubaidillah. (2019b). Tinjauan Buku: Peran Agama dalam Ujaran Kebencian: Sumber atau Target. Jurnal Masyarakat Indonesia, 45(1).

Waldorn, J. (2012). The Harm in Hate Speech. London: Harvard University Press.

Whitten, S. (2019). A Recognition, Authority Relations, and Rejecting Hate Speech, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10677-019-10003-z

Wijana, I. D. P. & Rohmadi, M. (2011). Analisis Wacana Pragmatik: Kajian Teori dan Praktik. Surakarta: Yuma Pustaka.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.18860/ling.v16i1.10190



Copyright (c) 2021 LiNGUA: Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa dan Sastra

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Member of:

Crossref

Indexed by:

EBSCO Dimension Google Scolar  Sinta Sinta InaSTI Moraref  Journal TOCS          Microsoft Academic Search

Editorial Office:
Laboratory of Information and Publication, Faculty of Humanities
Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
Jalan Gajayana 50 Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia 65144
Email: jurnallingua@gmail.com
Phone: +62 (0)341 570872


Creative Commons License
LiNGUA by Laboratory of Information and Publication, Faculty of Humanities is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejournal.uin-malang.ac.id/index.php/humbud/index.