Difficulties and strategies of learning English reading skills in large classes: A systematic literature review

Santi Istiqomah, Rohmani Nur Indah, Edwin Nuvianto Al Aziz


Reading in large classes can lead to many difficulties demanding for various teaching strategies to overcome any difficulties. This research aimed to find the difficulties found in large classes of reading and analyzed the strategies used to overcome them. It used a systematic analysis method that identifies existing literature available online. The data collection was carried out through systematic literature review stages: 1) framing questions for a review, 2) identifying relevant work, 3) assessing the quality of studies, 4) summarizing the evidence, and 5) interpreting the findings. The results show that students learning English in large classes particularly in secondary schools are always constrained in making inference, finding main idea, retention of detail information, understanding vocabulary, and locating reference. Concerning the strategies, junior and senior high school students must be involved in joyful and meaningful group fun activities for
reading. However, at university level, the self and autonomous learning style must be implemented. The finding implies on the need for collaborative learning method and also group fun activities for reading. It can be also helped by utilizing the technology and digital platform to make the students have more experiences in
learning reading in large class. 


reading skill; teaching strategies; learning difficulties; large classes; systematic literature review

Full Text:



Anwar, I. W., & Sailuddin, S. P. (2022). Academic reading difficulties in higher education. Journal of Languages and Language Teaching, 10(2), 309. https://doi.org/10.33394/jollt.v10i2.4849

Babu, H. (2019). An analysis of students’ difficulties in reading comprehension at Mts Darul Hikmah Pekanbaru. Universitas Islam Negeri Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau.

Barfield, A. (1999). In other words: how learners construct reading difficulties. In Literacy across Cultures.

Best, S., & Marcus, S. (2009). Surface reading: An introduction. Representations, 108(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1

Carpenter, J. M. (2006). Effective teaching methods for large classes. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences Education, 24(2).

Chi, V. H. I., & Kadandale, P. (2022). All groups are not created equal: Class-based learning communities enhance exam performance and reduce gaps. CBE Life Sciences Education, 21(3), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.21-09-0240

Diniya, M., & Puspitasari, I. (2020). Strategi membaca pembelajar bahasa inggris Sma. Jurnal Gama Societa, 3(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.22146/jgs.55574

Duarte, N. & B. V. (2005). Reading comprehension in teaching english as foreign language.

Dwiningtiyas, G. N., Sofyan, D., & Puspita, H. (2020). Teachers’ strategies in teaching reading comprehension. Journal of Applied Linguistic and Literacy, 4(2), 66–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.25157/jall.v4i2.3682

Fisher, A. S. H. (2016). Students’ reading techniques difficulties in recount text. Journal of English and Education, 4(2), 1–12.

Handayani, N. D., Mantra, I. B. N., & Suwandi, I. N. (2019). Integrating collaborative learning in cyclic learning sessions to promote students’ reading comprehension and critical thinking. International Research Journal of Management, IT and Social Sciences, 6(5), 303–308. https://doi.org/10.21744/irjmis.v6n5.777

Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. (2020). Professional capital after the pandemic: Revisiting and revising classic understandings of teachers’ work. Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 5(3/4), 327–336. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPCC-06-2020-0039

Harida, E. S., Sinaga, Y., Siregar, S. R., Matondang, N., & Rahmadani, A. H. (2022). The students’ difficulties in understanding english text in the covid-19 pandemic era. In 3rd International Conference on Educational Science and Teacher Profession (ICETeP 2021). Atlantis Press. https://dx.doi.org/10.2991/978-2-494069-19-0_16

Hasanah, T. (2022). An analysis of students’ difficulties in learning reading comprehension at the first grade of MA Bustanul Ulum Krai Lumajang.

Kakar, A. F., & Sarwari, K. (2022). Exploring teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards english language large classes at Herat University, Afghanistan. Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning, 7(1), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.18196/ftl.v7i1.12281

Karolides, N. J. (2020). The Reading process: Transactional theory in action. In Reader response in elementary classrooms (pp. 3–28). Routledge.

Khan, K. S., Kunz, R., Kleijnen, J., & Antes, G. (2003). Five steps to conducting a systematic review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96(3), 118–121. https://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.96.3.118

Kurniawan, N. A. (2017). Teaching strategies use in reading comprerhension class at the tenth grade students of SMK Islam Sudirman 2 Ambarawa. 1–70.

Kustanti, D. (2016). Kesulitan dan solusi pembelajaran English reading text. Al-Tsaqafa: Jurnal Ilmiah Peradaban Islam, 13(1), 85–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.15575/al-tsaqafa.v13i01.1833

Larasati, D. (2019). An analysis of difficulties in comprehending english reading text at the eleventh grade students of MA LAB UIN-SU Medan. Universitas Islam Negeri Sumatera Utara).

Masri, R. G. S. A. (2016). Students’ difficulties in reading English recount text: a study at eighth grade of SMPN 11 Mataram in Academic Year 2015/2016. Universitas Mataram.

Mulryan-Kyne, C. (2010). Teaching large classes at college and university level: Challenges and opportunities. Teaching in Higher Education, 15(2), 175–185. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562511003620001

Nisak, A. K., Suparman, U., & Suka, R. G. (2021). An analysis of students’ reading difficulties; a study at the first grade of SMKN 1 Simpang Pematang. U-JET, 10(3), 309–316. https://dx.doi.org/10.23960/UJET.v10.i3.202110

Nurjanah, R. L., & Pratama, M. R. A. (2020). Self-regulated learning strategy instructions in reading comprehension skill learning during outbreak era. Journal of English Language Teaching and Linguistics, 5(2), 191. https://doi.org/10.21462/jeltl.v5i2.409

Pang, E. S., Muaka, A., Bernhardt, E. B., & Kamil, M. L. (2003). Teaching reading; educational practices series. International Academy of Education, 1, 26.

Prihatini, S. O. (2020). An analysis of students’ difficulties in reading comprehension at SMA Negeri 1 Sukodadi Lamongan. E-Link Journal, 7(1), 21–29. https://doi.org/10.55047/romeo.v1i2.95

Puspita, L. D., & Nuroh, E. Z. (2022). Teacher’s perspective in teaching reading comprehension using reciprocal strategy. Jo-ELT (Journal of English Language Teaching) Fakultas Pendidikan Bahasa & Seni Prodi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris IKIP, 9(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.33394/jo-elt.v9i1.4861

Rohmana, W. I. M., & Amalia, K. R. (2022). Exploring the use of narrative text in teaching reading comprehension in efl clasroom. Proceeding of International Conference on Islamic Education (ICIED). http://conferences.uin-malang.ac.id/index.php/icied/article/view/2043

Sari, D. K., Pratiwi, E., & Thereana, A. (2018). Effective reading strategies for reading skills. Esteem Journal of English Education Study Programme, 2(2), 112–120. https://doi.org/10.31851/esteem.v2i2.2429

Saricoban, A. (2002). Reading strategies of successful readers through the three-phase approach. In The Reading Matrix (2 (3)).

Satriani, E. (2018). Reading comprehension difficulties encountered by English students of Islamic University of Riau. J-SHMIC: Journal of English for Academic, 5(2), 15–26. https://doi.org/10.25299/jshmic.2018.vol5(2).1885

Septia, N. W., Indrawati, I., Juriana, J., & Rudini, R. (2022). An analysis of students’ difficulties in reading comprehension. EEdJ: English Education Journal, 2(1), 11–22. https://doi.org/10.32923/eedj.v2i1.2519

Soemer, A., & Schiefele, U. (2019). Text difficulty, topic interest, and mind wandering during reading. Learning and Instruction, 61, 12–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.12.006

Susanti, N. (2020). The use of taking notes on report text. JETLe (Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning), 2(1), 37–42. https://doi.org/10.18860/jetle.v2i1.10331

Wibowo, Y., Syafrizal, S., & Syafryadin, S. (2020). An analysis of English teachers’ strategies in teaching reading Comprehension. JALL (Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literacy), 4(1), 20–27.

Zulianti, H., & Hastomo, T. (2022). Partner reading strategy : An effective strategy for improving students’ reading comprehension. Premise: Journal of English Education, 11(1), 175. https://doi.org/10.24127/pj.v11i1.4435

Zulianti, H., Wiratno, P., & Novia, S. (2022). Using cloze strategy to improve students’ reading comprehension. Journal of Language Intelligence and Culture, 4(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.35719/jlic.v4i1.78

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18860/jetle.v4i2.20362


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning (JETLE)
Mailing Address
English Education Department
Faculty of Education and Teacher Training
Universitas Islam Negeri UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
Jalan Gajayana 50 Malang 65144, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
Telp/Fax: +62341-552398    Email: jetle@uin-malang.ac.id  

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Indexed by