Pembelajaran Di Era Emergency Remote Teaching: Analisis Faktor Penghambat Partisipasi Diskusi Online Mahasiswa dan Strategi untuk Mengatasinya

Arief Ardiansyah, Bunga Vanda Meillynia


Online discussion methods are widely applied in various educational institutions, especially in Islamic universities. However, the popularity of this method is not accompanied by the students' enthusiasm for following it. This study endeavors to explicate the factors preventing students from contributing in online discussions and techniques to overcome them. This research is a study that uses library research techniques. The present investigation entails a series of sequential phases, including determining the topic of study, finding and selecting various literature related to the topic, reviewing the literature, and compiling the literature into a study. The present study employed content analysis techniques to scrutinize data derived from diverse literary sources. The outcomes of the study indicate that there are six crucial factors that impede students from participating in online discussions, including (a) not understanding the importance of virtual discussion, (b) the attitude or habits of the instructor or learner, (c) personal character, (d) not understanding what to contribute, (e) low critical thinking skills, and (f) lack of time. Instructors must know these barriers and implement strategies to make online discussion forums exciting and compelling. The present study findings have dual implications, practically and theoretically. Practically, this study has the potential to serve as a guiding framework in conducting the online discussion learning method. Theoretically, this study can add to the scientific treasures in discussion learning methods in universities and can be a foundation for researchers pursuing additional investigation within the identical domain.


Online discussion; Discussion barriers; Boosting Discussion Engagement

Full Text:



Ahmad, C. V. (2021). Causes of Students’ Reluctance to Participate in Classroom Discussions. ASEAN Journal of Science and Engineering Education, 1(1), 47–62.

Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Gazit, T., Bar-Ilan, J., Perez, O., Aharony, N., Bronstein, J., & Sarah

Dyne, T. (2016). Psychological factors behind the lack of participation in online discussions. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 268–277.

Ardiansyah, A., Al-anshori, T., Zakaria, Z., & Cahyanto, B. (2022). Principles of Online Learning Assessment : A Literature Review Between Western Education Theory and Islamic Education Theory. Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam, 19(1), 14–28. Principles

Ardiansyah, A., Setiawan, E., & Budiya, B. (2021). Moving Home Learning Program (MHLP) as an Adaptive Learning Strategy in Emergency Remote Teaching during the Covid-19 Pandemic. JPUD - Jurnal Pendidikan Usia Dini, 15(1), 1–21.

Arend, B. (2009). Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions. The Journal of Educators Online, 6(1), 1–23.

Bai, H. (2009). Facilitating students’ critical thinking in online discussion: An instructor’s

experience. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8(2), 156–164.

Balaji, M. S., & Chakrabarti, D. (2010). Student interactions in online discussion forum: Empirical research from “media richness theory” perspective. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9(1), 1–22.

Baruth, O., & Cohen, A. (2022). Personality and satisfaction with online courses : The relation between the Big Five personality traits and satisfaction with online learning activities. Education and Information Technologies, (0123456789).

Bassar, A. S., Ruswandi, U., & Erihadiana, M. (2021). Pendidikan Islam: Peluang dan Tantangan di Era Global dan Multikultural. J-PAI: Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam, 8(1), 63–75.

Chen, L., Inoue, K., Goda, Y., Okubo, F., Taniguchi, Y., Oi, M., … Yamada, M. (2020). Exploring Factors that Influence Collaborative Problem Solving Awareness in Science Education. Technology, Knowledge and Learning, 25(2), 337–366.

Chen, S. J., & Caropreso, E. J. (2004). Influence of personality on online discussion. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 3(2).

Cheong, C. M., & Cheung, W. S. (2008). Online discussion and critical thinking skills: A case study in a Singapore secondary school. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 24(5), 556–573.

Cheung, W. S., Hew, K. F., & Ng, C. S. L. (2008). Toward an understanding of why students contribute in asynchronous online discussions. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38(1), 29–50.

Cheung, W. S. U. M., & Hew, K. H. E. F. (2004). Evaluating The Extent of ill-Structured problem Solving Proces Among Pre-Service Tachers in an Asyncronous Online Discussion. J.Education Computing Resuarch, 30(3), 197–227.

Choi, I., Land, S. M., & Turgeon, A. J. (2005). Scaffolding peer-questioning strategies to facilitate metacognition during online small group discussion. Instructional Science, 33(5–6), 483–511.

Cookson, M. D., & Stirk, P. M. R. (2019). Student Participation in Online Discussions. Springer.

Davidson-Shivers, G. V., Muilenburg, L. Y., & Tanner, E. J. (2001). How do students participate in synchronous and asynchronous online discussions? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 25(4), 351–366.


de Lima, D. P. R., Gerosa, M. A., Conte, T. U., & José, J. F. (2019). What to expect, and how to improve online discussion forums: the instructors’ perspective. Journal of Internet Services and Applications, 10(1).

Dennen, V. P. (2007). From message posting to learning dialogues : Factors affecting learner discussion From Message Posting to Learning Dialogues : Factors affecting learner discussion. Distance Education, 26(1), 127–148.

Ding, L. (2017). Student Engagement in Online Discussions Through A Gamified Approach.

University of Georgia.

Du, Z., Wang, F., Wang, S., & Xiao, X. (2022). Enhancing Learner Participation in Online Discussion Forums in Massive Open Online Courses: The Role of Mandatory Participation. Frontiers in Psychology, 13(April).

Dysthe, O. (2002). Studies in Higher Education The Learning Potential of a Web-mediated Discussion in a University Course The Learning Potential of a Web-mediated Discussion in a University Course. Studies in Higher Education, 27(3), 37–41.

Er, E., Dimitriadis, Y., & Gašević, D. (2021). Collaborative peer feedback and learning analytics: theory-oriented design for supporting class-wide interventions. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 46(2), 169–190.

Ertmer, P. A., & Koehler, A. A. (2015). Facilitated versus non-facilitated online case discussions: comparing differences in problem space coverage. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 27(2), 69–93.

George, M. W. (2008). The Element of Library Research (1st editio). New Jersey: PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS.

Gerbic, P. (2006). To post or not to post: Undergraduate student perceptions about participating in online discussions. ASCILITE 2006 - The Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education, 1(1995), 271–281.

Ghadirian, H., Fauzi Mohd Ayub, A., & Salehi, K. (2018). Students’ perceptions of online discussions, participation and e-moderation behaviours in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 27(1), 85–100.

Ghaith, G. (2002). The relationship between cooperative learning , perception of social support , and academic achievement. /System, (January), 263–273.

Ginting, D. (2021). Student Engagement and Factors Affecting Active Learning in English Language Teaching. VELES Voices of English Language Education Society, 5(2), 215– 228.

Guzdial, M., & Turns, J. (2000). Effective discussion through a computer-mediated anchored forum. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9(4), 437–469.

Hammond, M. (1999). Issues associated with participation in on line forums-the case of the communicative learner. Education and Information Technologies, 103(3), 353–367.

Henri, F. (1992). Computer conferencing and content analysis. In A. R. Kaye (Ed.), Collaborative learning through computer conferencing: The Najaden papers (pp. 117– 136). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2008). Attracting student participation in asynchronous online discussions: A case study of peer facilitation. Computers and Education, 51(3), 1111– 1124.

Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2012). Students’ use of Asynchronous Voice Discussion in a Blended-learning Environment: A study of two undergraduate classes. The Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 10(4), 360–367.

Hew, K. F., & Cheung, W. S. (2014). Using Blended Learning Evidence-Based Practices.

London: Springer. 10.1007/978-981-287-089-6

Ibrahim, N., Shak, M. S. Y., Mohd, T., Ismail, N. A., Perumal, P. D. a/p, Zaidi, A., & Yasin, S. M.

A. (2015). The Importance of Implementing Collaborative Learning in the English as a Second Language (ESL) Classroom in Malaysia. Procedia Economics and Finance, 31(15), 346–353.

Idris, M., & Mokodenseho, S. (2021). Model Pendidikan Islam Progresif. J-PAI: Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam, 7(2), 72–86.

Jeong, A. (2004). The Combined Effects of Response Time and Message Content on Growth Patterns of Discussion Threads in Computer-Supported Collaborative Argumentation. Journal of Distance Education, 19(1), 36–53.

Jeong, A., & Frazier, S. (2008). How day of posting affects level of critical discourse in asynchronous discussions and computer-supported collaborative argumentation. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5), 875–887.

Jung, I., Choi, S., Lim, C., & Leem, J. (2002). Effects of different types of interaction on learning achievement, satisfaction and participation in web-based instruction. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 39(2), 153–162.

Kienle, A., & Ritterskamp, C. (2007). Facilitating asynchronous discussions in learning communities: The impact of moderation strategies. Behaviour and Information Technology, 26(1), 73–80.

Kim, J. (2013). Influence of group size on students’ participation in online discussion forums. Computers and Education, 62, 123–129.

Lee, J. E. (2019). Examining the Effects of Discussion Strategies and Learner Interactions on Performance in Online Introductory Mathematics Courses: An Application of Learning Analytics (Utah State University). Utah State University. Retrieved from 404650?accountid=9838%0Ahttp://ucalgary- 2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation&genre=disse

Leeuwen, A. Van, Janssen, J., Conijn, R., & Kester, L. (2020). Computers & Education Supporting learners ’ self-regulated learning in Massive Open Online Courses. Computers & Education, 146(February 2019), 1–17.

Lim, S. C. R., Cheung, W. S., & Hew, K. F. (2011). Critical thinking in asynchronous online discussion: An investigation of student facilitation techniques. New Horizons in Education, 59(1), 52–65.

Mason, R. B. (2011). Student engagement with, and participation in, an e-forum.

Educational Technology and Society, 14(2), 258–268.

Mazzolini, M., & Maddison, S. (2003). Sage, guide or ghost? the effect of instructor intervention on student participation in online discussion forums. Computers and Education, 40(3), 237–253.

Meşe, E., & Çiğdem, S. (2021). Factors influencing EFL students’ motivation in online learning: A qualitative case study. Journal of Educational Technology & Online Learning, 4(1), 11–22. Retrieved from

Morgan, K. (2006). Ground Rules in Online Discussions: Help or Hindrance? Journal of Teaching in Marriage and Family, 6, 285–305.

Muljana, P. S., & Luo, T. (2019). Factors Contributing to Student Retention in Online Learning and Recommended Strategies for Improvement: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 18(18), 19–57.

Nandi, D., Hamilton, M., Harland, J., & Mahmood, S. (2015). Investigation of Participation and Quality of Online Interaction. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, 7(8), 25–37.

Nandi, D., Hamilton, M., Harland, J., & Warburton, G. (2011). How active are students in online discussion forums? Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology Series, 114, 125–133.

Nento, S., & Abdullah, A. H. (2022). Analisis Faktor Penghantar Upaya Peningkatan Kompetensi Profesional Guru. J-PAI: Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam, 8(2), 85–95.

Ng, C. S. L., Cheung, W. S., & Hew, K. F. (2010). Solving ill-structured problems in asynchronous online discussions: Built-in scaffolds vs. no scaffolds. Interactive Learning Environments, 18(2), 115–134.

Nursyahidin, R., Rohman, A., & Febriyanti, N. (2021). Learning Innovation of Islamic Education in Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam, 18(1), 145–166.

Olivier, J. (2020). Self-directed multimodal learning within a context of transformative open education. In J. Olivier (Ed.), Self-directed multimodal learning in higher education (p.

432). Cape Town: OASIS. Painter, C., Coffin, C., & Hewings, A. (2003). Impacts of directed tutorial activities in

computer conferencing: A case study. Distance Education, 24(2), 159–173.

Priyanto, A. (2020). Pendidikan Islam dalam Era Revolusi Industri 4.0. J-PAI: Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam, 6(2), 80–89.

Rathakrishnan, M., Ahmad, R., & Suan, C. L. (2017). Online discussion: Enhancing students’ critical thinking skills. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1891(October 2017).

Rollag, K. (2010). Teaching business cases online through discussion boards: Strategies and best practices. Journal of Management Education, 34(4), 499–526.

Rotar, O. (2020). A missing element of online higher education students’ attrition, retention and success: an analysis through a systematic literature review. In Working Paper Series. Retrieved from 020.pdf

Salam, S., & Hew, K. . (2010). Enhancing social studies students’ critical thinking through blogcast and socratic questioning: A Singapore case study. International Journal of Instructional Media, 37(4), 391–401.

Skinner, E. (2009). Using community development theory to improve student engagement in online discussion: a case study. Alt-J, Research in Learning Technology, 17(2), 89– 100.

Smaldino, S. E., Russell, J. D., Heinich, R., & Molenda, M. (2001). Instructional Technology and Media for Learning (7th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.

Smith, & Helen. (2008). Assessing student contributions to online discussion boards.

Practitioner Research in Higher Education, 2(1), 22–28.

Tambak, S., Hamzah, Ahmad, M. Y., Siregar, E. L., Sukenti, D., Sabdin, M., & Rohimah, R. B. (2022). Discussion method accuracy in Islamic higher education : The influence of gender and teaching duration. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 41(2), 507–520.


LEARNING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: Challenges and Strategies. Englisia: Journal of Language, Education, and Humanities, 8(1), 79.

Thomas, M. J. . (2002). Learning within incoherent structures: the space of online discussion forums. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 18, 351–366.

Ubu, A. C. P., Putra, I. N. A. J., & Santosa, M. H. (2021). EFL university student engagement on the use of online discussion in North Bali. Language and Education Journal Undiksha, 4(1), 22–31.

Van Mierlo, T. (2014). The 1% rule in four digital health social networks: An observational study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(2), 1–9.

Verenikina, I., Jones, P. T., & Delahunty, J. (2017). The Guide to Fostering Asynchronous Online Discussion in Higher Education. 26.

Voogt, J., & Roblin, N. P. (2012). A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21 st century competences: Implications for national curriculum policies. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44(3), 299–321.

Xie, K., Debacker, T. K., & Ferguson, C. (2006). Extending the traditional classroom through online discussion: The role of student motivation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 34(1), 67–89.

Xie, K., Yu, C., & Bradshaw, A. C. (2014). Impacts of role assignment and participation in asynchronous discussions in college-level online classes. Internet and Higher Education, 20, 10–19.

Xu, B., Chen, N. S., & Chen, G. (2020). Effects of teacher role on student engagement in WeChat-Based online discussion learning. Computers and Education, 157, 103956.

Yang, Y. T. C. (2008). A catalyst for teaching critical thinking in a large university class in Taiwan: Asynchronous online discussions with the facilitation of teaching assistants. Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(3), 241–264.

Yang, Y. T. C., Newby, T. J., & Bill, R. L. (2005). Using Socratic Questioning to Promote Critical Thinking Skills Through Asynchronous Discussion Forums in Distance Learning Environments. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 21(1), 163–181.

Yeh, H.-T., & Lahman, M. (2007). Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of Asynchronous Online Discussion on Blackboard. The Qualitative Report, 12(4), 680–704.

Zacharis, N. Z. (2009). Fostering Students Participation In Online Environments: Focus On Interaction, Communication And Problem Solving. Journal of College Teaching & Learning (TLC), 6(2), 25–34.

Zainiyati, H., & Dimas Dwi Nugraha, D. (2018). Students Participation and Perception in Threaded Online Discussion. International Conference on English Language Teaching (ICONELT 2017) Students, 145(Iconelt 2017), 240–243. Atlantis Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Alamat Redaksi:

Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan
Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
Jalan Gajayana 50 Malang, Jawa Timur, Indonesia 65144

Phone (0341) 552398, Faximile (0341) 552398


J-PAI: Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang berada di bawah lisensi Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0.


Indexed by: